Disturbance in essential fatty acids (EFA) metabolism plays a key role in autoimmune diseases, but EFA supplementation with sources of borage, evening primrose, hemp seed and fish oils was not effective in atopic and cancer diseases, as that seen in the case of multiple sclerosis. It seems that two complexes of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, mTORC1 and mTORC2, are congruent with the two bases of the Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM) therapy, Cold and Hot nature, which are essential for the efficacy of functional oils for controlling immune responses in autoimmune diseases.


We searched PubMed database, Web of Science (WOS), Google Scholar, Scopus and selected studies by predefined eligibility criteria. We then assessed their quality and extracted data.


The oils controlled by Cold or Hot nature may be helpful in maintaining homeostasis and preventing autoimmune diseases. In summary, studies of randomized controlled trials for allergy and cancer patients found no improvement in the signs or response to tests, despite a remarkable change in EFA fractions in the blood by supplementation with sources of borage, evening primrose, hemp seed and fish oils. In contrast, portulaca oleracea oil exhibited protective effects by anti-inflammatory properties via the PI3K/Akt/mTORC2 pathway with a deviation immune response to Th1 to treat atopic diseases and cancer.


According to the concept of Traditional Iranian Medicine therapy, in contrast to Cold-nature oils, EFA supplementation with the sources of Hot-nature oilsis not suitable for the treatment of atopic and cancerous diseases.


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